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Author(s): Gouveia, P
Felgueiras, F
Mourão, Z
Fernandes, EDO
Moreira, André
Gabriel, MF
Title: Predicting health risk from exposure to trihalomethanes in an Olympic-size indoor swimming pool among elite swimmers and coaches
Issue Date: 2019
Abstract: Disinfection by-products (DBP) such as trihalomethanes (THM) are formed when chlorine and bromine interact with natural organic materials in chlorine-treated swimming pools. Epidemiological evidence demonstrated an association between exposure to swimming pool environment and adverse health effects. Therefore, this study aimed to assess carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk of long-term exposure of elite swimmers and their coaches. In an Olympic-size indoor chlorinated swimming pool, THM levels were determined in water (2169 µg/L), in the boundary layer above the water surface (59397 µg/m3), and in the air surrounding the pool (28390 µg/m3). These values were used to predict multi-pathway chronic daily intake (CDI), cancer risk (CR) and hazard index (HI). Oral and dermal CDI for swimmers were 2.4 × 106 and 2.0 × 108, respectively. The swimmers inhalation CDI (1.9 × 103 mg/kg/day) was estimated to be sixfold higher than levels obtained for coaches (3.3 × 104 mg/kg/day). According to guidelines, the HI was acceptable, but CR exceeded the recommended limit for both, coaches (CR: 5.5 × 1078.5 × 105; HI: 6.5 × 1041 × 101) and swimmers (CR: 1.4 × 1053.6 × 104 HI: 1.6 × 1024.3 × 101). Our findings provide further support to the need to develop comprehensive guidelines to safeguard the health of individuals involved in elite swimming. (c) 2019, (c) 2019 Taylor & Francis.
Subject: Ciências da Saúde, Ciências médicas e da saúde
Health sciences, Medical and Health sciences
Scientific areas: Ciências médicas e da saúde
Medical and Health sciences
Document Type: Artigo em Revista Científica Internacional
Rights: restrictedAccess
Appears in Collections:FMUP - Artigo em Revista Científica Internacional

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