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dc.creatorNovais, Carla
dc.creatorCampos, J
dc.creatorFreitas, AR
dc.creatorBarros, M
dc.creatorSilveira, E
dc.creatorCoque, TM
dc.creatorAntunes, Patrícia
dc.creatorLuisa Peixe
dc.description.abstractThe role of European fish farms in the spread of antimicrobial-resistance in the environment and food chain, as well as possible sources of their contamination by clinically relevant antimicrobial-resistance bacteria is scarcely known. This study aimed to assess the contribution of Portuguese rural trout farms on dispersion of Enterococcus with antimicrobial-resistance and putative virulence genes in the environment and food chain, as well as to identify farms contamination sources. We also assessed the presence of Enterococcus with low-levels of antimicrobial-resistance using epidemiological cut-offs (ECOFFs). Enterococcus spp. (n = 391) from water/sediment recovered upstream, within and downstream trout tanks, feed, trout (2 aquacultures; no antibiotic use) and marketed trout (8 supermarkets) showed variable resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, quinupristin-dalfopristin, nitrofurantoin or aminoglycosides. Antimicrobial-resistance rates were similar among upstream, within and downstream trout tank samples (P > 0.05), positioning water-supplying aquacultures as a source of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains. Nevertheless, predominance of MDR E. faecium in feed, trout tanks and trout comparing to upstream samples, suggests feed as an additional aquaculture contamination source. The observation of E. faecium and E. faecalis susceptible to ampicillin and gentamicin by clinical breakpoints but with low-levels of resistance to those antimicrobials by ECOFFs breakpoints is of concern, as they might evolve throughout secondary genetic events to resistance levels with human clinical impact. Multiple MDR clones carrying copper tolerance (tcrB/cueO), putative virulence or other genes often associated with clinical strains (e.g. E. faecium with IS16/ptsD/sgrA) were observed, some in distinct samples (e.g. upstream and within trout tanks). They included major human and animal Enterococcus lineages, suggesting human and non-aquatic animal origins. The results highlight the need to define the maximum acceptance level of antimicrobial-resistance genes/bacteria to assess water quality and to monitor antimicrobial-resistance strains on feed, essential requirements to maintain a sustainable aquaculture production. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.
dc.relationinfo:eu-repo/grantAgreement/FCT - Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia/Projectos de I&DT em Todos os Domínios Científicos/FCT_2010_1/Estarão as aquaculturas a produzir mais do que peixe? Detecção de resistência a agentes antimicrobianos num nicho ecológico pouco estudado /Aquaculturas
dc.subjectCiências da Saúde, Ciências médicas e da saúde
dc.subjectHealth sciences, Medical and Health sciences
dc.titleWater supply and feed as sources of antimicrobial-resistant Enterococcus spp. in aquacultures of rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss), Portugal
dc.typeArtigo em Revista Científica Internacional
dc.contributor.uportoFaculdade de Farmácia
dc.contributor.uportoFaculdade de Ciências da Nutrição e Alimentação
dc.subject.fosCiências médicas e da saúde
dc.subject.fosMedical and Health sciences
Appears in Collections:FCNAUP - Artigo em Revista Científica Internacional
FFUP - Artigo em Revista Científica Internacional

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