Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10216/103783
Author(s): Joana Maia Dias
Maria Conceição Machado Alvim-Ferraz
Manuel Fonseca Almeida
José Diego Méndez Díaz
Manuel Sánchez Polo
José Rivera Utrilla
Title: Biodiesel production using calcium manganese oxide as catalyst and different raw materials
Issue Date: 2013
Abstract: The use of heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production aims to simplify the production process as well as to reduce purification costs and related environmental impacts. Calcium manganese oxide was recently identified by the authors as an interesting heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from animal fat; however, the difference between this and other catalysts, the catalyst activation/deactivation mechanisms, its behaviour in the synthesis using different raw materials as well as the impacts of its use on product quality remained unclear. Therefore, the present work: (i) compared biodiesel production using calcium manganese oxide and other catalysts (CaO and NaOH); (ii) studied the reasons leading to activation/deactivation of the heterogeneous catalyst; (iii) analysed biodiesel heterogeneous synthesis using calcium manganese oxide and different raw materials (lard, waste frying oil and a mixture); and (iv) evaluated raw material and catalyst impact on the product quality. Considering the use of different catalysts, the results showed that, after 8 h of reaction, product purity was similar using the different catalysts, being 92.5 wt.% using both NaOH and calcium manganese oxide and 93.8 wt.% using CaO. The active species of the heterogeneous catalysts were CaO, in the case of calcinated calcium carbonate, and Ca0.9Mn0.1O, in the case of calcinated calcium manganese oxide. Because the deactivating species were different for both catalysts, the calcium manganese oxide required lower activation temperature, which should be an advantage. When using different raw materials, the reaction was slower when lard was used for biodiesel synthesis. Leaching results showed that catalytic behaviour was heterogeneous but further purification of biodiesel might be needed. Using heterogeneous catalysis, after 8 h of reaction, independently of the raw materials used, similar results were obtained regarding the reaction progression; the quality was generally maintained but the water content of the product was improved compared to the homogeneous process.
Subject: Ciências do ambiente, Engenharia do ambiente
Environmental science, Environmental engineering
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10216/103783
Related Information: info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/Agência de Inovação, S.A./Projectos de I&DT em Co-Promoção/SI IDT - 3491/2008/Valorização de Subprodutos de Carnes/FatValue
Document Type: Artigo em Revista Científica Internacional
Rights: restrictedAccess
Appears in Collections:FEUP - Artigo em Revista Científica Internacional

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