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Author(s): Dionísia Castro
Klara Slezakova
Cristina Delerue Matos
Maria da Conceição Alvim Ferraz
Simone Morais
Maria do Carmo Pereira
Title: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in gas and particulate phases of indoor environments influenced by tobacco smoke: Levels, phase distributions, and health risks
Issue Date: 2011
Abstract: As polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have a negative impact on human health due to their mutagenic and/or carcinogenic properties, the objective of this work was to study the influence of tobacco smoke on levels and phase distribution of PAHs and to evaluate the associated health risks. The air samples were collected at two homes; 18 PAHs (the 16 PAHs considered by U.S. EPA as priority pollutants, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene and benzo[j]fluoranthene) were determined in gas phase and associated with thoracic (PM(10)) and respirable (PM(2.5)) particles. At home influenced by tobacco smoke the total concentrations of 18 PAHs in air ranged from 28.3 to 106 ng m(-3) (mean of 66.7 +/- 25.4 ng m(-3)), Sigma(PAHs) being 95% higher than at the non-smoking one where the values ranged from 17.9 to 62.0 ng m(-3) (mean of 34.5 +/- 16.5 ng m(-3)). On average 74% and 78% of Sigma(PAHs) were present in gas phase at the smoking and non-smoking homes, respectively, demonstrating that adequate assessment of PAHs in air requires evaluation of PAHs in both gas and particulate phases. When influenced by tobacco smoke the health risks values were 3.5-3.6 times higher due to the exposure of PM(10). The values of lifetime lung cancer risks were 4.1 x 10(-3) and 1.7 x 10(-3) for the smoking and non-smoking homes, considerably exceeding the health-based guideline level at both homes also due to the contribution of outdoor traffic emissions. The results showed that evaluation of benzo[a]pyrene alone would probably underestimate the carcinogenic potential of the studied PAH mixtures; in total ten carcinogenic PAHs represented 36% and 32% of the gaseous Sigma(PAHs) and in particulate phase they accounted for 75% and 71% of Sigma(PAHs) at the smoking and non-smoking homes. respectively.
Subject: Ciências da terra e ciências do ambiente
Earth and related Environmental sciences
Scientific areas: Ciências exactas e naturais::Ciências da terra e ciências do ambiente
Natural sciences::Earth and related Environmental sciences
Document Type: Artigo em Revista Científica Internacional
Rights: restrictedAccess
Appears in Collections:FEUP - Artigo em Revista Científica Internacional

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