Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10216/96186
Author(s): Manuel F. Almeida
Susana M. Xará
Julanda Delgado
Carlos A. Costa
Title: Laboratory study on the behaviour of spent AA household alkaline batteries in incineration
Issue Date: 2009
Abstract: The quantitative evaluation of emissions from incineration is essential when Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)studies consider this process as an end-of-life solution for some wastes. Thus, the objective of this work isto quantify the main gaseous emissions produced when spent AA alkaline batteries are incinerated. Withthis aim, batteries were kept for 1 h at 1273 K in a refractory steel tube hold in a horizontal electric furnacewith temperature control. At one end of the refractory steel tube, a constant air flow input assuresthe presence of oxygen in the atmosphere and guides the gaseous emissions to a filter system followed bya set of two bubbler flasks having an aqueous solution of 10% (v/v) nitric acid. After each set of experiments,sulphur, chlorides and metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn) were analyzedin both the solutions obtained from the steel tube washing and from the bubblers. Sulphur, chlorides andmetals were quantified, respectively, using barium sulfate gravimetry, the Volhard method and atomicabsorption spectrometry (AAS).The emissions of zinc, the most emitted metal, represent about 6.5% of the zinc content in the batteries.Emissions of manganese (whose oxide is the main component of the cathode) and iron (from the cathodecollector) are negligible when compared with their amount in AA alkaline batteries. Mercury is the metalwith higher volatility in the composition of the batteries and was collected even in the second bubblerflask. The amount of chlorides collected corresponds to about 36% of the chlorine in the battery sleevethat is made from PVC. A considerable part of the HCl formed in PVC plastic sleeve incineration is neutralizedwith KOH, zinc and manganese oxides and, thus, it is not totally released in the gas.Some of the emissions are predictable through a thermodynamic data analysis at temperatures in therange of 12001300 K taking into account the composition of the batteries. This analysis was done formost of potential reactions between components in the batteries as well as between them and the surroundingatmosphere and it reasonably agrees the experimental results.The results obtained show the role of alkaline batteries at the acid gases cleaning process, through theneutralization reactions of some of their components. Therefore, LCA of spent AA alkaline batteries at themunicipal solid waste (MSW) incineration process must consider this contribution.
Subject: Tecnologia ambiental, Engenharia do ambiente
Environmental technology, Environmental engineering
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10216/96186
Document Type: Artigo em Revista Científica Internacional
Rights: restrictedAccess
Appears in Collections:FEUP - Artigo em Revista Científica Internacional

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