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Author(s): Malaquias, MJ
Pinto, CM
Ramos, C
Ferreira, S
Gandara, J
Almeida, A
Cavaco, S
Miranda, HP
Magalhães, M
Title: Acquired hepatocerebral degeneration and hepatic encephalopathy: one or two entities?
Publisher: Wiley
Issue Date: 2020
Abstract: Background and purpose: Acquired hepatocerebral degeneration (AHD) and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) are neurological complications of chronic liver disease (CLD) with portosystemic shunt. While HE is common, AHD is a rare entity, and the clinical imaging relationships observed in small series lack validation in large patient cohorts. The aim of this study was to characterize a cohort of AHD patients and to explore possible associations with HE coexistence. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with a working AHD diagnosis, between 2008 and 2019. Clinical, laboratory, imaging and neuropsychological results at first neurological observation were reviewed and compared between the 'AHD' group and the 'AHD with HE' group. Results: A total of 76 patients were recruited. The most frequent neurological manifestations were neuropsychiatric (93.4%) and extrapyramidal (84.2%). Only 38% of patients had hypermanganesemia. Compared with the AHD group, the AHD with HE group had more hyperkinetic movement disorders (71.4% vs. 38.5%; P = 0.05), a higher number of patients on the dementia spectrum (57.7% vs. 20%; P = 0.04), higher median ammonia levels (P = 0.014) and more widespread cortico-subcortical and pyramidal involvement on brain magnetic resonance imaging. Nineteen patients underwent liver transplantation, with significantly improved survival (P = 0.006). Discussion: Hepatic encephalopathy and AHD often coexist in the same patient. Seventy-six patients with CLD and AHD were evaluated, making this one of the largest reported AHD cohorts. Blood manganese level was a weak diagnostic marker in AHD. Early liver function restoration through liver transplantation improved survival. Our report provides a detailed description of the phenotype and long-term outcome of AHD, with relevance for diagnosis and treatment.
Subject: acquired hepatocerebral degeneration; chronic liver disease; hepatic encephalopathy; liver transplantation; manganese
Source: Eur J Neurol. 2020 Dec;27(12):2396-2404
Document Type: Artigo em Revista Científica Internacional
Rights: restrictedAccess
Appears in Collections:ISPUP - Artigo em Revista Científica Internacional

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