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Author(s): Andreia F. Peixoto
Ruben Ramos
Manuela M. Moreira
Olívia Salomé G. P. Soares
Lucília Ribeiro
Manuel Fernando R. Pereira
Cristina Delerue Matos
Cristina Freire
Title: Production of ethyl levulinate fuel bioadditive from 5-hydroxymethylfur-fural over sulfonic acid functionalized biochar catalysts
Issue Date: 2021
Abstract: In this work, a series of novel -SO3H functionalized biochar materials were prepared and investigated for the first time as catalysts for the production of fuel additive ethyl levulinate (EL) from biomass-derived 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The employed biochar was directly produced from vineyard pruning wastes by a simple hydrothermal treatment using water in subcritical conditions followed by 3 different one-step sulfonation processes. The effects of sulfonating agent, reaction temperature, reaction time and alcohol solvent were examined. Full HMF conversion together with outstanding EL yields (over 84%) were achieved at 130 degrees C and after 6 h over the biochar functionalized with the organosilane 2-(4-chlorosulphonylphenyl)ethyltrimetoxysilane (BioC-S3). Catalyst characterization suggested that the high acid strength (0.983 mmol H+.g- 1) derived from the anchoring of arylsulfonic groups were responsible for the promotion of acid-driven etherification and ethanolysis steps. The BioC-S3 catalyst can be recycled without a significant loss of catalytic activity, indicating the stability of - SO3H organosilane group structure in the porous biochar. The obtained results offer a competitive alternative for the production of fuel additives, such as alkyl levulinates, using low-cost and easy-to-prepare biocharbased catalysts, all from lignocellulose resources, as an example to support a future exploitation of a potential biorefinery.
Document Type: Artigo em Revista Científica Internacional
Rights: restrictedAccess
Appears in Collections:FEUP - Artigo em Revista Científica Internacional

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