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Author(s): Juliana M. Paca
Francisca M. Santos
José C.M. Pires
Anabela A. Leitão
Rui A. R. Boaventura
Title: Quality assessment of water intended for human consumption from Kwanza, Dande and Bengo rivers (Angola)
Issue Date: 2019
Abstract: Angola is one of the countries with a high rate of waterborne diseases, due to the scarcity and poor quality of water for human consumption. The watercourses are receptors of many effluents, mainly domestic sewage, due to a precarious or inexistent sanitation system and a small number of wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, this study aims: (i) to evaluate the water quality (physicochemical and microbiological parameters) of three Angolan rivers (Kwanza, Bengo and Dande) in locations where water is used as drinking water or abstracted for human consumption; (ii) to develop a new water quality index able to quantitatively express the water quality in those sites; and (iii) to assess the spatial distribution of water pollution through principal component analysis (PCA). Water quality assessment was performed by conducting four field surveys (campaigns I to IV); the first two campaigns took place in the dry season, while the last two ones took place in the rainy season. In the first two campaigns, the water quality was suitable to be treated for the production of drinking water, while in the last two campaigns, the water was unsuitable for that purpose (high levels of faecal coliforms were detected). The water quality index allowed to classify the water as generally excellent (campaigns I and II) and poor (campaigns Ill and IV). The rudimentary disinfection usually performed by individual water suppliers may improve the water quality, but it was not enough to achieve the parametric values required for human consumption in the rainy season (campaigns III and IV) except for Bengo sites. PCA identified sampling sites with the same water quality patterns, grouping into four groups (Kwanza sites) and two groups (Dande and Bengo sites). Therefore, the results of this study may support decision-makers as regards water supply management in the river stretches under study. The new developed Water Quality Index can support decision-makers in terms of water supply management, especially in countries with a high rate of waterborne diseases (e.g. Angola). (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Related Information: info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/FCT - Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia/Programa de Financiamento Plurianual de Unidades de I&D/UID/EQU/00511/2019 /Projeto Estratégico do LEPABE - Laboratório de Engenharia de Processos, Ambiente, Biotecnologia e Energia/LEPABE
Document Type: Artigo em Revista Científica Internacional
Rights: restrictedAccess
Appears in Collections:FEUP - Artigo em Revista Científica Internacional

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