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dc.creatorMagnoni L.J.
dc.creatorMartos-Sitcha J.A.
dc.creatorQueiroz A.
dc.creatorCalduch-Giner J.A.
dc.creatorGonçalves J.F.M.
dc.creatorRocha C.M.R.
dc.creatorAbreu H.T.
dc.creatorSchrama J.W.
dc.creatorOzorio R.O.A.
dc.creatorPerez-Sanchez J.
dc.description.abstractIntensive aquaculture practices involve rearing fish at high densities. In these conditions, fish may be exposed to suboptimal dissolved O2 levels with an increased formation of reactive O2 species (ROS) in tissues. Seaweeds (SW) contain biologically active substances with efficient antioxidant capacities. This study evaluated the effects of dietary supplementation of heat-treated SW (5% Gracilaria vermiculophylla or 5% Ulva lactuca) on stress bioindicators in sea bream subjected to a hypoxic challenge. 168 fish (104.5 g average weight) were distributed in 24 tanks, in which eight tanks were fed one of three experimental diets for 34 days: (i) a control diet without SW supplementation, (ii) a control diet supplemented with Ulva, or (iii) a control diet with Gracilaria. Thereafter, fish from 12 tanks (n=4 tanks/dietary treatment) were subjected to 24 h hypoxia (1.3 mg O2 l-1) and subsequent recovery normoxia (8.6 mg O2 l-1). Hypoxic fish showed an increase in hematocrit values regardless of dietary treatment. Dietary modulation of the O2-carrying capacity was conspicuous during recovery, as fish fed SW supplemented diets displayed significantly higher haemoglobin concentration than fish fed the control diet. After the challenge, survival rates in both groups of fish fed SW were higher, which was consistent with a decrease in hepatic lipid peroxidation in these groups. Furthermore, the hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities were modulated differently by changes in environmental O2 condition, particularly in sea bream fed the Gracilaria diet. After being subjected to hypoxia, the gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and molecular chaperones in liver and heart were down regulated in sea bream fed SW diets. This study suggests that the antioxidant properties of heat-treated SW may have a protective role against oxidative stress. The nature of these compounds and possible mechanisms implied are currently being investigated. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists
dc.description.sponsorshipThe authors are grateful to Pedro Eloi, Fernando Magalhães and Carlos Morais (ICBAS-UP) for fish maintenance. We would like to thank Kevin Tromp (WIAS-WU), Luis Pereira, Francisca Silva-Brito, and Filipa Fontinha for technical assistance during sampling and analysis (CIIMAR-UP). The authors would like to express gratitude to Rui Pereira (ALGA plus), Jorge Dias (Sparos Lda.), Jon Svendsen and Maria João Peixoto (CIIMAR-UP) for technical advice
dc.publisherCompany of Biologists
dc.relation.ispartofBiology Open, vol. 6(6), p. 897-908
dc.subjectbiological marker
dc.subjectglutathione peroxidase
dc.subjectglutathione reductase
dc.subjectglutathione transferase
dc.subjecthypoxia inducible factor 1alpha
dc.subjectlactic acid
dc.subjectperoxiredoxin 3
dc.subjectperoxiredoxin 5
dc.subjectanimal experiment
dc.subjectanimal tissue
dc.subjectcontrolled study
dc.subjectdiet supplementation
dc.subjectheart tissue
dc.subjectheat treatment
dc.subjecthemoglobin determination
dc.subjectlipid peroxidation
dc.subjectliver tissue
dc.subjectmean corpuscular hemoglobin
dc.subjectoxidative stress
dc.subjectSparus aurata
dc.subjectsurvival rate
dc.titleDietary supplementation of heat-treated Gracilaria and Ulva seaweeds enhanced acute hypoxia tolerance in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata)
dc.typeArtigo em Revista Científica Internacional
dc.contributor.uportoCIIMAR - Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental
Appears in Collections:CIIMAR - Artigo em Revista Científica Internacional

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