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Author(s): Cabral, M
Fonseca, MJ
González-Beiras, C
Santos, AC
Correia-Costa, L
Barros, H
Title: Maternal smoking: a life course blood pressure determinant?
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Issue Date: 2018
Abstract: Introduction: Exposure to maternal smoking early in life may affect blood pressure (BP) control mechanisms. We examined the association between maternal smoking (before conception, during pregnancy, and 4 years after delivery) and BP in preschool children. Methods: We evaluated 4295 of Generation XXI children, recruited at birth in 2005–2006 and reevaluated at the age of 4. At birth, information was collected by face-to-face interview and additionally abstracted from clinical records. At 4-year follow-up, interviews were performed and children’s BP measured. Linear regression models were fitted to estimate the association between maternal smoking and children’s BP. Results: Children of smoking mothers presented significantly higher BP levels. After adjustment for maternal education, gestational hypertensive disorders, and child’s body mass index, children exposed during pregnancy to maternal smoking presented a higher systolic BP (SBP) z-score (β = 0.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04 to 0.14). In crude models, maternal smoking was associated with higher SBP z-score at every assessed period. However, after adjustment, an attenuation of the association estimates occurred (β = 0.08, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.13 before conception; β = 0.07, 95%CI 0.02 to 0.12; β = 0.04, 95%CI −0.02 to 0.10; and β = 0.06, 95%CI 0.00 to 0.13 for the first, second, and third pregnancy trimesters, respectively; and β = 0.07, 95%CI 0.02 to 0.12 for current maternal smoking). No significant association was observed for diastolic BP z-score levels. Conclusion: Maternal smoking before, during, and after pregnancy was independently associated with systolic BP z-score in preschool children. This study provides additional evidence to the public health relevance of maternal smoking cessation programs if early cardiovascular health of children is envisaged. Implications: Using observational longitudinal data from the birth cohort Generation XXI, this study showed that exposure to maternal smoking—before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and 4 years after delivery—was associated with a systolic BP-raising effect in children at the age of 4. The findings of this study add an important insight into the need to support maternal smoke-free environments in order to provide long-term cardiovascular benefit, starting as early as possible in life.
Subject: Smoking - Pregnancy
Series: Nicotine & Tobacco Research
Related Information: info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/FCT/PD/PD/BD/105824/2014/PT
Document Type: Artigo em Revista Científica Internacional
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:ISPUP - Artigo em Revista Científica Internacional

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