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Author(s): A. I. Faustino Rocha
A. Silva
J. Gabriel
R. M. Gil da Costa
M. Moutinho
P. A. Oliveira
A. Gama
R. Ferreira
M. Ginja
Title: Long-term exercise training as a modulator of mammary cancer vascularization
Issue Date: 2016
Abstract: Background: Breast cancer remains a leading cause of death by cancer worldwide. It is commonly accepted that angiogenesis and the expression of angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is associated with the increased risk of metastasis and poor patient outcome. Objective: This work aimed to evaluate the effects of long-term exercise training on the growth and vascularization of mammary tumors in a rat model. Materials and methods: Fifty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: two N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-exposed groups (exercised and sedentary) and two control groups (exercised and sedentary). MNU was administered once, intraperitoneally at 7 weeks-old. Animals were then exercised on a treadmill for 35 weeks. Mammary tumors were evaluated using thermography, ultrasonography [Power Doppler (PDI), B Flow and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS)], and immunohistochemistry (VEGF-A). Results: Both, MNU sedentary and exercised groups showed 100% of tumor incidence, but exercised animals showed less tumors with an increased latency period. Exercise training also enhanced VEGF-A immunoexpression and vascularization (microvessel density, MVD) (p < 0.05), and reduced histological aggressiveness. Ultrasound and thermal imaging analysis confirmed the enhanced vascularization of tumors on exercised animals. Conclusion: Long-term exercise training increased VEGF-A expression, leading to enhanced tumor vascularization and reduced tumor burden, multiplicity and histological aggressiveness. (c) 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS.
Related Information: info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/FCT - Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia/Projetos Estratégicos/UID/EQU/00511/2013 - POCI-01-0145-FEDER-006939/Laboratório de Engenharia de Processos, Ambiente, Biotecnologia e Energia/LEPABE
Document Type: Artigo em Revista Científica Internacional
Rights: restrictedAccess
Appears in Collections:FEUP - Artigo em Revista Científica Internacional

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