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Author(s): Pignatelli, D
Carvalho, B
Palmeiro, A
Barros, A
Guerreiro, SG
Macut, D
Title: The complexities in genotyping of congenital adrenal hyperplasia: 21-hydroxylase deficiency
Publisher: Frontiers Media
Issue Date: 2019
Abstract: The deficiency of 21-hydroxylase due to CYP21A2 pathogenic variants is a rather frequent disease with serious consequences, going from a real mortality risk to infertility and to milder symptoms, nevertheless important for affecting the patients’ self-esteem. In the most severe cases life-threatening adrenal salt wasting crises may occur. Significant morbidity including the possibility of mistaken gender determination, precocious puberty, infertility and growth arrest with consequent short stature may also affect these patients. In the less severe cases milder symptoms like hirsutism will likely affect the image of the self with strong psychological consequences. Its diagnosis is confirmed by 17OH-progesterone dosages exceeding the cut-off value of 10/15 ng/ml but genotyping is progressively assuming an essential role in the study of these patients particularly in confirming difficult cases, determining some aspects of the prognosis and allowing a correct genetic counseling. Genotyping is a difficult process due to the occurrence of both a gene and a highly homologous pseudo gene. However, new tools are opening new possibilities to this analysis and improving the chances of a correct diagnosis and better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the disease. Beyond the 10 classic pathogenic variants usually searched for in most laboratories, a correct analysis of 21OH-deficiency cases implies completely sequencing of the entire gene and the determination of gene duplications. These are now recognized to occur frequently and can be responsible for some false positive cases. And finally, because gene conversions can include several pathogenic variants one cannot be certain of identifying that both alleles are affected without studying parental DNA samples. A complete genotype characterization should be considered essential in the preparation for pregnancy, even in the case of parents with milder forms of the disease, or even just carriers, since it has been reported that giving birth to progeny with the severe classic forms occurs with a much higher frequency than expected.
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology, vol.10:432
Document Type: Artigo em Revista Científica Internacional
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I3S - Artigo em Revista Científica Internacional

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